Hii everyone!!!

Welcome to a new week! 💃🏾💃🏾💃🏾 I hope you had a restful weekend? I sure did. Cheers to a productive new week ahead. 😊😊😊

Last week, I began a series of posts on Sexual & Gender-Based Violence (SGBV). It was established that sex refers to the biological characteristics of individuals while gender refers to the society’s definition of expectations, roles, responsibilities, entitlements and obligations associated with being a man or woman. It was also established that SGBV can be perpetrated against any individual but there are more instances of SGBV perpetrated against girls and women than against boys and men. Unequal power relationships and deeply rooted gender norms were identified as the root causes of SGBV. Acts of sexual & gender-based violence are also under-reported due to reasons such as fear of personal safety and stigmatization. Conclusively, a perpetrator is any individual, group or organisation that directly inflicts, supports, allows, incites, overlooks, condones, or justifies acts of SGBV perpetrated against an individual.

This week, I am continuing the series by addressing the categories of Sexual & Gender-Based Violence. Thanks to everyone who dropped their responses about today’s topic in the Comments section.

There are several categories of Sexual and Gender-based Violence. However, these acts can be classified into five (5) broad categories:

1. Physical Violence
This is the intentional use of physical force or threats of violence on an individual. These range from acts as “little” as pinching, to physical assault such as beating, biting, burning and kicking, using instruments to cause harm, infanticide (the intentional killing of children), femicide (the intentional killing of women and girls because they are female), slavery, amongst others.

2. Sexual Violence
This refers to forcing, intimidating or even tricking a person to engage in any sexual act against their will. Any sexual act with someone who is unable to understand what they are doing or is unable to consent because of their age, illness, disability, or because they are under the influence of alcohol and/or drugs is sexual violence. This could be in form of rape, attempted rape, marital rape, defilement, child sexual abuse, online sexual abuse, sexual violence as a weapon of war or torture, sexual harrassment, sexual assault, sexual exploitation, trafficking, commercial sexual exploitation, sexual violence based on sexual orientation, amongst others.

3. Economic Violence
This involves denying an individual access to their money, economic activity or other basic needs by either controlling their finances or stopping them from achieving financial independence. Denial of access to resources also includes deying girls their right to education and depriving women of inheritance, property or land ownership.

4. Emotional/Psychological Violence
This is a form of psychological abuse which includes verbal abuse, confinement, humiliation, manipulation, social exclusion based on sexual orientation or gender identity, and controlling what a person can or cannot do.

5. Harmful Traditional Practices
These are forms of violence which have been committed primarily against women and girls in certain communities and societies for so long that they are considered, or presented by perpetrators, as part of accepted cultural practice. Some of these practices are female genital mutilation/cutting, forced marriage, child marriage, and honour-related crimes.

The next part of this series would address the laws and policies that exist to protect an individual against Sexual and Gender-based Violence. Before then, I would love to hear from you. Can you identify some of these laws and policies that can protect and individual from SGBV? Please leave your answers in the  Comments section below.





Hello Everyone!!!


In my previous posts, I talked about what sexual and gender-based based violence means, the root causes and the reasons behind the under-reportage of Sexual and Gender-Based Violence incidents. Having established these, you may ask – How do we identify perpetrators of Sexual and Gender-Based Violence? Thanks to everyone who made comments about today’s topic in the previous post.


A perpetrator is not just an individual who directly inflicts acts of SGBV on an inidivdual. It is also any individual, group or institution that directly supports, allows, accepts, permits, overlooks or even excuses acts of SGBV. It means that if you believe a religious leader or celebrity, for instance,  should be excused for sexually assaulting a young girl just because it was so long ago or because he was still young and people make mistakes in their youth, you are a perpetrator of SGBV. If you look the other way when your neighbour is beating his wife because “you don’t want to interfere in family matters”, you are a perpetrator of SGBV.


Non-partner violence is perpetrated by someone a survivor does not know well such as a stranger, acquaintance or colleague.


However, most acts of SGBV are perpetrated by someone known to the survivor such as in cases of inter-personal violence perpetrated by a friend or close family member or intimate partner violence perpetrated by a lover, spouse or an ex-partner.


In my next posts, I will be talking about the different categories of Sexual and Gender-Based Violence. Before then, I would like to hear from you. How many categories of Sexual and Gender-Based Violence do you know? Please leave your answers in the Comments section below.




Hello Everyone!!!

This evening, I will be continuing this series with a highlight of the root causes of Sexual and Gender-based Violence. I will also be talking about the reasons behind the under-reportage of SGBV incidents. Thanks to everyone who made comments about today’s topics in the previous post.

Sexual and Gender Violence is a serious global problem and the most common/widespread human rights violation. It can happen to any individual. However, it is most commonly perpetrated by men against women, girls and other vulnerable people. As such, it is also interchangeably referred to as Violence against Women/Girls (VAW/G). It is estimated that globally, 35 per cent of women worldwide have experienced either physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence or sexual violence by a non-partner at some point in their lives. It is also estimated that 1 in 3 women globally will experience physical and/or sexual violence in her lifetime.

Deeply rooted gender norms and unequal power relationships have been identified as the root causes of SGBV. Sexual and Gender-based Violence is an abuse of power. Power has been directly linked to a person’s choice and people with little power have fewer choices and are more vulnerable to abuse. Gender norms also usually impose restructions in women and girls in particular. Despite the fact that they have equal human rights with boys and men, they are given/develop low expectations of their rights. SGBV is also not consensual in the sense that these actions are perpetrated through violence and coercion which may include threats to life, threats to withhold a benefit or a promise to provide a benefit.

It is also important to note that SGBV is always under-reported. The number of individuals who report experiencing or surviving SGBV is likely much lower than the true number of SGBV cases. Some survivors do not speak up due to fear of personal safety or security for themselves and their families. They also fear the stigmatisation they would face for speaking up. One of the most recent examples is the Busola Dakolo vs Biodun Fatoyinbo’s saga. While some people supported Busola for speaking up, several others were against her. They said things like why did she take so long to speak up, how dare she accuse a renowned Pastor of raping her and it was most likely not rape because she did not scream.

Other reasons behind under-reportage include lack of services for survivors of SGBV, lack of reporting mechanisms, cultural norms that condone some types of violence and taboo against certain forms of violence such as violence against men or against older persons.

In my next post, I will be talking about who the perpetrators of these acts of violence are. Before then, I would like to hear from you. Who do you think these perpetrators of SGBV are? Please leave your answers in the Comments section.




Hii everyone! It has been quite a while since my last post. I recently began my postgraduate degree and it has been difficult to juggle a number of commitments. However, I am back and ready to interact with you. 😊😊😊 This past month, I was privileged to participate in a Massive Online Open Course on Sexual and Gender-Based Violence (SGBV) by YouthHubAfrica. I, alongside over 50 student bloggers and social media influencers, gained an understanding of SGBV and policies/ laws on sexual and gender-based violence with specific focus on universities.

Over the next couple of weeks, I will be sharing my knowledge of SGBV with you. I call this a beginner’s guide to sexual and gender-based violence because these series of posts will give you a foundational knowledge of this issue and will motivate you to take a stand against SGBV, for those of you who are learning about this issue for the first time.


First off, what is sexual and gender-based violence? This is a very important question and in order to be able to appropriately answer it, we need to be able to identify and define the individual aspects of the concept.


Sexual means “of or relating to sexual reproduction, sexual acts, sexuality, sexual orientations, identity or preferences with respect to sexual intercourse”. A word that keeps on reflecting in this definition is “SEX”. In general terms, sex refers to a category into which humans are divided on the basis of their reproductive roles. Simply put, sex refers to the biological characteristics of males and females.


Gender, on the other hand, is defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as “the socially constructed characteristics of women and men, such as norms, roles and relationships of and between groups of women and men. It varies from society to society and can be changed”. Gender also refers to the economic, social, political, and cultural attributes and opportunities associated with being women and men.


Violence can simply be defined as any action which causes pain, destruction or suffering.


Putting these terms together, Gender-based Violence (GBV), also known as Sexual and Gender-based Violence, is defined as any harmful act of sexual, physical, psychological, mental and emotional abuse that is perpetrated against a person’s will and that is based on socially ascribed (i.e. gender) differences between males and females.


In my next post, I will be talking about the root causes of Sexual and Gender-based Violence, who the perpetrators of SGBV are and why SGBV is under-reported in our society. Before then, I would like to hear from you. What do you think are the root causes of SGBV and why do you think SGBV is under-reported? Please leave your answers in the Comments section below.